CONTRACTORS ORIENTATION COURSE
“Right of Way”
Occupancy & Safety Rules
Watco Companies Contractor Orientation Course
This course can be duplicated for student handouts.
Worker Protection/On-Track Safety
The FRA Roadway Worker Protection Standards became effective for Class I
railroads and their contractors on March 15, 1997.
Watco Companies published corresponding on-track safety requirements that became
effective at Watco Companies -including Watco Companies Engineering contractor operations - on
August 1, 1996.
To be pro-active, Watco Companies elected to implement an on-track safety program in
advance of the final publication of the FRA Roadway Worker Protection
1.The terms On-Track Safety and Roadway Worker Protection are used
2. The FRA Roadway Worker Protection Standards were developed to
prevent accidents and injuries as a result of personnel being struck by
trains and other on-track equipment.
the purpose of these requirements, all Engineering contractors working
within the 25 foot from track centerline, are being considered
as Roadway Workers. This is a conservative approach.
contractors working within 25’ of track centerline will have their on-track
safety strategy determined by the Watco Companies project representative, but may offer
input. When a contractor is working with a Watco Companies Maintenance of Way Rules (MWOR)
qualified Watco Companies employee serving as a flagger or lookout the Watco
Companies flagger or
lookout will have readily available all applicable rules, timetables and
other required documents.
5. Some contractors may
have their own FRA approved Roadway Worker Protection program. In such cases
the contractor needs to verify
if with the Watco Companies project
representative that their program requirements do not conflict with Watco
requirements. A copy of this approved program would need to be readily
available to contractor work groups.
responsible Watco Companies project representative may set supplemental requirements.
7. Unless specified otherwise in contract language, affected
contractors working at Watco Companies are responsible for providing on-track
safety training for their affected employees on an annual basis. This
training is provided by or through the contractor.
The FRA Roadway
Worker Protection Standards were developed to prevent accidents and injuries as
a result of personnel being struck by trains and other on-track equipment.
Unless specified otherwise in contract language, affected
contractors working at Watco Companies are responsible for developing and implementing an
on-track safety program. Implementation would include providing on-track safety
training for their affected employees on an annual basis.
The safety action plan of affected contractors needs to document
that they have an FRA approved roadway worker protection program or have elected to adopt the
Watco Companies program. The safety
action plan of affected contractors also needs to indicate that affected
employees have received on-track safety training.
or equipment are foul of the track when closer then 4 feet to
the nearest rail of a main track/controlled siding/other track.
Contractors need specific authorization from their Watco Companies project
representative to work within 25 feet of track centerline.
Contractors working within 25 feet of track centerline:
have specific authorization from the Watco Companies project representative to be in
this work zone;
wear ANSI Level II or III orange,
and retro-reflective workwear; and,
work with the responsible Watco Companies project representative to
develop a project specific strategy for addressing on-track safety (examples
of options upcoming).
The use of hardhats, armbands,
belts, or gloves with orange backing alone to meet the high visibility
retro-reflective requirements is not acceptable.
vests are the preferred workwear.
- Though the
FRA Roadway Worker Protection Standards would allow the use of bright green as a
high visibility workwear color, orange workwear is specified for use at
high visibility workwear when it becomes faded or damaged.
Trains and engines
are required to sound the whistle and ring the bell when approaching roadway
workers - as identified by orange, retro-reflective workwear - who are on or
near the track.
On-Track Safety Strategy Options
Working Under Authority
Where contractor personnel or
equipment may foul the track, and individual train detection is not appropriate
a Watco Companies flagger will be present. Track authority will be obtained through the
other contractor operations that will require authority and a flagger:
boring below the track structure, as an operation failure could result in humping of
where boom swing or tipping of equipment would result in
fouling the track;
operations such as some pole line removal operations, where material could fall and foul track
a work group has a form of authority in place, train crews are aware of the work
group's presence and location. The train crew needs to contact the
employee-in-charge and receive permission to pass through the section of track
covered by the authority.
There may be other situations where a Watco Companies project representative b>
may require a Watco Companies flagger include:
· large numbers of
contractor personnel working within the 25 foot from track centerline zone,
though not required to work foul of track
a large concentration of
contractor rubber-tired equipment working within the 25 foot from track
centerline zone, though not required to work foul of track;
responsible Watco Companies
project representative has minimal or
no previous work experience with the contractor working within the 25
foot from track centerline zone;
concerns with high track speeds and/or limited sight distance.
contractors through written agreement, and after having successfully
completed Watco Companies
Maintenance of Way Rules training, have the ability to serve in Watco
In some cases a flagger may be required or otherwise used for a portion of a
project with other options for on-track safety selected for the balance
of a project.
Watco Companies flaggers are responsible
for the on-track safety aspects of the work, as opposed to the overall
·obtains track authority* or
·establishes the warning method
to notify personnel of the need to clear for trains/on-track equipment;
·notifies personnel when to
occupy, clear and re-occupy the track and adjacent work area;
·identifies the place(s) of
safety where personnel are to go to when clearing the track for traffic; and,
·conducts job safety briefings
to cover the aforementioned information.
Types of Authority
forms of authority are more commonly used than others, some are rarely used.
Track Bulletin Form B is the form of authority most commonly used in conjunction
with projects involving contractors.
·Track and Time
·Train Location Lineup
·Track Bulletin Form B
To be discussed in the job safety briefing conducted by the
flagger, as applicable:
·method of on-track safety*
·limits of authority (time
duration, milepost-milepost) *
·tracks that may be fouled
·control of movements on
·procedure for on-track safety
on adjacent tracks
·means of providing a warning to
clear the track and adjacent work area
·identification of the
place(s) of safety
·designated work zones around
·distances to be maintained
between machines when working and traveling
* Record this
information and carry on-person. Be able to identify the employee-in-charge
* This distance may be reduced
when having a good reason, and as covered in your job safety briefing. This
exemption is not to be used on a routine basis.
The work zone extends
15 feet longitudinally to the front and rear of on-track work equipment. The
safe working zone to the sides of on-track work equipment varies based on
movements of machine parts. A job safety briefing needs to be conducted with the
machine operator prior to entering this work zone.
Remember, that in
addition to on-track safety issues, job safety briefings need to cover other
aspects of the work being performed and emergency preparedness issues.
Follow-up job safety briefings
need to be
conducted when conditions or procedures change, or the method of on-track safety
is changed, extended, or to be released.
train detection may be used when:
inspections or minor work when: the work does not affect the movement of trains
- create the potential for derail; and
be visually detected moving at maximum timetable speed;
to see is not impaired; and
the ability to hear is not impaired *
When using individual train detection, power
tools may be used on other than main track.
Train crews are not aware of work group locations when individual train detection
During the job safety briefing
the Watco Companies Maintenance of Way Rules - Qualified lookout, who is qualified
in judging distances and has current status in on-track safety training and is
equipped with a radio:
Identifies the place of safety
communicates to workers the
method of warning
devotes full attention to the
detection of trains; and,
completes the Statement of
On-Track Safety, which is maintained by the lookout on-person.
The warning method used by a lookout needs to be:
light or flag that is being waved; for example, would not be seen by
personnel who may be
working or walking in the opposite direction.);
distinguishable above background noise; and,
- identified in the job safety briefing
Unless specified in contract
language, contractor employees will not
serve as lookouts.
Watco Companies Maintenance of Way Rules - Qualified
who is qualified in judging distances and has current status in on-track
safety training and equipped with a radio:
Identifies the place of safety
completes the Statement of On-Track Safety, which is maintained by the
Unless specified in contract language,
contractor employees will not serve as lone workers.
of On-Track Safety:
by the lookout
prior to the work group fouling the track;
lookout or lone worker obtains the appropriate timetable and General Order
complete the Statement of On-Track Safety;
of the completed Statement of On-Track Safety is maintained with the
lookout or lone worker
timetables list the maximum allowable track speed. General Orders
provide up-to-date information of conditions that affect train
to be in their place of safety prior to a train reaching the
distance corresponding to the track speed as specified on the
form Statement of On-Track Safety.
lined against movement, properly tagged, spiked, clamped, or locked;
have a red flag/ light with a derail in place.
This is performed by a Watco Companies Maintenance of Way
Rules - Qualified employee, unless specified otherwise in contract language.
Options When Not Working Foul of Track
contractor employees are working in the 25 foot from centerline zone, yet will
not be fouling the track, Watco Companies project representatives have some additional
Install a construction fence,
or the equivalent, to serve as a reminder to contractor personnel not to foul
the track. The fence needs to be installed far enough from track that is will
not be struck by trains or on-track equipment.
·Designate a contractor employee
to serve as a lookout to keep his co-workers in the immediate work area and
not allow them to approach foul of track. This is not a lookout as defined
in the FRA Roadway Worker Protection Standards.
·Obtain a commitment from the
contractor that the work group will specify in their job safety briefing the
need to stay in the immediate work area and not approach foul of track.
The FRA's "foul of track" zone
has no vertical limit. When involved in the construction of an overpass, for
example, and when working above the immediate track area, the same requirements
apply as if working "foul of track" at ground/track level. Common sense
dictates, however, that when an overpass is complete except for minor tasks, and
there is no potential for material, equipment or personnel fouling the track, it
is not necessary for workers, upon notification of the approach of a train, to
leave the overpass area above the "foul of track" zone and move to a place of
safety. The Watco Companies Project Representative or flagger needs to concur with such a
plan, and expectations need to be clearly communicated during the job safety
contractors may offer suggestions regarding on-track safety strategies, the
has the absolute final decision. Different Watco Companies
will not necessarily select the same on-track safety strategy option in like
project representative is to coordinate with the management of Intermodal,
Hub Center and Mechanical personnel, and contractor representatives to
verify that all are aware and in agreement with the on-track safety strategy
when Engineering contractors are performing work at these facilities. The
Watco Companies project representative is to advise Intermodal, Hub Center and
Mechanical management to communicate this information to affected personnel.
As information, when workers are crossing the track
to go from a job-site to a Watco Companies building or to their vehicle, the FRA
Roadway Worker Protection Standards do not apply. It is critical, however,
that workers look both ways and
verify that the track is clear in both directions. Expect movement on any
track, at any time, and in either direction!
Workers crossing the track are not to be carrying heavy and/or awkwardly
shaped work materials, equipment, or objects which, hinder their smooth
movement across the track, or where - should they drop the item
- it would foul the track and create a hazard for trains and on-track
The FRA Roadway Worker Protection Standards require that operators of
on-track equipment be:
·Trained and certified as competent to operate on-track equipment.
·Operators are to be familiar with the information in a machine's operating
manual; manuals are carried on items of work equipment.
include crane load charts.
Contractors need to have a program in-place to establish competency in work
This training, as applicable is listed in a contractor's safety action
These same requirements need to be applied to rubber-tired work equipment.
SECURITY AWARENESS COURSE
In 1993 a group of religious fundamentalist’s attempts
to topple the World Trade Center, by detonating a rented truck filled with
ammonium nitrite, urea and nitric acid.
In 1995 Timothy McVeigh blows up the federal building
in Oklahoma City as a result of his growing anger with the federal
In 1999 two members of an anti-government militia are
arrested for plotting to detonate 24 million gallons of liquid propane at a
storage facility in Elk Grove, California.
September 11, 2001 a small group of well organized terrorists hijack four
commercial aircraft crashing two into the World Trade Center, one into the
Pentagon, while the passengers of the fourth cause its crash in a
Pennsylvania field preventing its apparent attack on another target.
Thousands of innocent people are killed.
These are a few examples of terrorist attacks that have
drawn attention to the importance of security of hazardous materials in
America’s transportation system.
While none of these incidents involved the
transportation of hazardous materials, they illustrate how hazardous
materials have the potential to be transformed into terrorist weapons.
Hazardous materials are essential to the economy of the
United States and the well being of its people. They fuel our cars and
trucks and locomotives, heat and cool our homes and offices, and purify the
water we drink. Hazardous materials are used in farming, medical
applications, in manufacturing, mining and other industrial processes. Over
800,000 shipments of Hazardous Materials are made daily.
Hazardous materials move safely by plane, train, truck,
vessel, or pipeline in quantities ranging from ounces to thousands of
gallons. In the wrong hands however, hazardous materials can pose a
significant threat. Addressing this threat is vital to protecting our
citizens and our economy.
The Department of Homeland Security and law enforcement
agencies alone cannot guarantee the security of the transportation system.
They need the help of carriers, shippers and producers.
I have the privilege and
honor to be President of the Association of American Railroads. In this
time of heightened security alert, our nation is depending on a safe, secure
and reliable transportation system; and, as you know, freight railroads are
the backbone of that transportation system. The secure operation of
railroads is critical to our economy, our national defense, and our way of
In the rail industry, safety
and security have always been our highest priorities. Thanks to the efforts
of our companies and your personal dedication to safety, we are prepared.
However, we must continue to
focus and heighten our awareness. We can become even better at what we do.
The Association of American Railroads and your individual companies have
developed plans in a continuing effort to enhance the security of the rail
system, especially in the area of hazardous materials.
As you watch this
presentation, I invite you to join your fellow employees in taking your
skills and safety principles to a new level. This will help us “all do our
share: in the years to come.
We can all be proud to be
part of the railroad family. Thank you for everything you do to provide
safe, secure, and efficient transportation. Mr. Ed Hamburger,
President & CEO of AAR
What you need to do while
on Railroad Property.
A heightened awareness.
An alertness to your work
A commitment to safe and
proper procedures and rules.
The willingness to follow up
on out of the ordinary circumstances and situations.
And the knowledge of how to
communicate and make proper notification of exceptional or unusual
Each is a part of what we
can do and they are all a part of being a railroader.
The U.S. Department of
Transportation now requires each employee involved in the transportation of
hazardous materials to receive training in transportation security
you work in the railyards, out along the railroad track, or in a shop or an
office, security awareness means contributing to a safe work environment by
being aware of your surroundings at all times, complying with rules,
instructions and conducting thorough job briefings.
In other words staying alert
for events or circumstances that are out of the ordinary and knowing what to
do, while at all times maintaining your safety and the safety of others.
For example trespassers:
We’ve all seen them on the railroad. However, in these times it is
especially important that we don’t unauthorized persons on our property. If
appropriate politely question the person and inform him or her of the laws
regarding trespassing and the potential dangers on railway property for
yourself that they leave the property.
Sometimes there is the more
questionable type trespasser, such as the person who just looks out of
place. We know how railroaders dress and usually we are fairly familiar
with vendors and delivery people in our areas. In this case notify the
appropriate authorities, supervisors, railway or local police, according to
your railroad’s procedures. Graphic – Police Emergency Response Number.
In any case, do not take
risks. But, on the other hand do not ignore the unauthorized person on
railroad property or on our trains. Another type person to be aware of is
the person who seems curious about the railroad or its operations.
Especially people who ask about times and routes of trains, movements
involving hazmat, military supplies and people who wish to know locations of
offices such as dispatching centers.
Also notice people who
appear to be lost or confused. They may actually be lost, or they may be
trying to find their way around your office building or work area.
If you have a new employee
working with you, take the time to brief him or her on what is “normal” or
accepted in your work area, what they may expect and whom they may expect to
Try to heighten their
awareness and give them examples of people or activities that they should be
alert for. Prepare them! Teach them to recognize the “norm: and maybe they
will then recognize the out-of-the ordinary.
We should also heighten our
awareness for unusual circumstances. Things we might have taken for granted
in the past should “get your attention”.. For example, a vehicle parked on
the right of way or near your shop, or an unfamiliar truck or van making a
delivery. Now, that’s not to say that every unfamiliar vehicle is
“suspicious”. However, it is important that we pay attention to our
environment and circumstances that are our of the ordinary.
The security of railroad
property is also a high priority. Particular attention should be paid to:
bridges; tunnels; fuel storage facilities; yards with high volumes of haz-mat shipments; dispatching centers; communication & signal systems and
Rules compliance, equipment
and job knowledge and knowledge of your territory or work area play key
roles in transportation security.
For example, while out on
the railroad, make doubly sure that locomotives and trains are secured.
When possible lock the locomotive. Secure remote control belt packs, when
equipment is left unattended at outlying points or at remote points within
yards or terminals. Follow the rules. As always the rules are your best
friends when it comes to preventing incidents and injuries.
Double check switches.
Determine if they are lined and locked properly. Pay close attention to
derails. Lock all company vehicles when not in use. Check buildings and
shanties for security, lock-‘em up!
Pay special attention to
areas or buildings that may be used to store hazardous materials. If an
area, building, or office is restricted or secured, that’s just what it
should be, restricted to entry. Do not allow unauthorized persons to enter
and if unauthorized persons do seek entry, refer them to the proper
If you work with a computer
take all security precautions. Lock it down when it is unattended. Never
share your user ID and password, and don’t allow others to use your computer
while logged on. There is a lot of information that can be gained through
our company computer network, such as train documents and car movement
Protect your company
equipment. Lock up all materials.
Car inspections are a vital
part of our rail security. Increase your scrutiny of railcars especially
hazardous materials and military shipments. Look for unusual items mounted
on or under cars. Report unusual conditions to the appropriate authority.
Look for signs of tampering.
Each of us is familiar with
the routines and people we see every day in our office, yard or shop. If
you see an unfamiliar face or questionable situation, ask questions if it
seems safe to do so. Check credentials from those who say they work for a
government agency. Peacefully confront strangers or visitors on property.
Determine if they have a business need to be there, such as a contractor.
If there is any question in these cases notify your supervisor or
Watch and listen. Be aware
of personal conversations with others on or off the property about your job
and yard. Unusual interest in technical details should heighten your
suspicion and should be reported. Do not speak openly, about detailed
information on trains, direction of movement, schedules and consists,
especially hazardous materials, business car and military movements. This
includes posting information to internet sites.
As always, in any effort
teamwork and communication is imperative. Be familiar with and follow
instructions on the emergency response procedures.
Keep one another focused;
discuss alertness and security at job briefings and safety meeting; remind
one another of things to look out for; share information; discuss
precautions and proper responses to situations; follow the plan; and make a
contribution. Each of us has a responsibility. It’s bigger than just our
work group or railroad.
Now, we know we have covered
a lot of ground in a short time and of course we can’t include every
situation or response in a program of this length. That’s where you come
in. Remember, if you do notice people or events out-of-the ordinary, don’t
over-react. Don’t under-react either. Take appropriate action, and that
means being prepared. Know the appropriate action or notification. Take
the time to prepare yourself with knowledge. And most of all DO NOT
take risks, with your safety or the safety of others.
As we said earlier all
citizens, all railroaders have a responsibility to the safety and security
of our families, homes, communities and our nation. There are not better
reasons to heighten our alertness and awareness. It is up to all of us “to
do our share”. We are the eyes and ears of safety and security for the
railroad. We are each on the front line of defense. We are all in it